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Multi-analyte detection handheld analyzer for point-of-care application with disposable biochips
Dutta, M.; Ramasamy, L.; Xiaoshan Zhu; Jaephil Do; Chuan Gao; Chien-Chen Hong; Puntambekar, A.; Jungyup Han; Se Hwan Lee; Trichur, R.; Jin-Woo Choi; Nevin, J.H.; Ahn, C.H.; Chilukuru, S.
Sensors, 2003. Proceedings of IEEE
Volume 1, Issue , 22-24 Oct. 2003 Page(s): 617 - 621 Vol.1
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/ICSENS.2003.1279011
Summary: In this work, we present the development of a handheld analyzer for actuation and sensing control of a disposable biochip for point-of-care monitoring of clinically relevant parameters. The disposable biochip has integrated on-chip air bursting detonators for fluid driving linked to a smart passive microfluidic system and an array of biosensors capable of simultaneously monitoring oxygen, glucose and lactate concentrations in human blood. The handheld analyzer houses the SMT (surface mount technology) based electronics system for providing the driving signals to the air bursting detonators and to monitor the analyte signals from the biosensors. We have designed, tested and characterized the analyzer using the disposable biochips to test analytes from human blood. The analyzer developed in this work is /spl sim/ 5.25" /spl times/ 3.5" times; 1.5" and is currently the smallest unit capable of multi-parameter detection from human blood samples.
 Materials technology
Supramolecular chemistry and molecular self-assembly processes in particular have been applied to the development of new materials. Large structures can be readily accessed using bottom-up synthesis as they are composed of small molecules requiring fewer steps to synthesize. Thus most of the bottom-up approaches to nanotechnology are based on supramolecular chemistry.
A major application of supramolecular chemistry is the design and understanding of catalysts and catalysis. Noncovalent interactions are extremely important in catalysis, binding reactants into conformations suitable for reaction and lowering the transition state energy of reaction. Template-directed synthesis is a special case of supramolecular catalysis. Encapsulation systems such as micelles and dendrimers are also used in catalysis to create microenvironments suitable for reactions (or steps in reactions) to progress that is not possible to use on a macroscopic scale.
Supramolecular chemistry is also important to the development of new pharmaceutical therapies by understanding the interactions at a drug binding site. The area of drug delivery has also made critical advances as a result of supramolecular chemistry providing encapsulation and targeted release mechanisms. In addition, supramolecular systems have been designed to disrupt protein-protein interactions that are important to cellular function.
 Data storage and processing
Supramolecular chemistry has been used to demonstrate computation functions on a molecular scale. In many cases, photonic or chemical signals have been used in these components, but electrical interfacing of these units has also been shown by supramolecular signal transduction devices. Data storage has been accomplished by the use of molecular switches with photochromic and photoisomerizable units, by electrochromic and redox-switchable units, and even by molecular motion. Synthetic molecular logic gates have been demonstrated on a conceptual level. Even full-scale computations have been achieved by semi-synthetic DNA computers.
 Green chemistry
Research in supramolecular chemistry also has application in green chemistry where reactions have been developed which proceed in the solid state directed by non-covalent bonding. Such procedures are highly desirable since they reduce the need for solvents during the production of chemicals.
 Other Devices and Functions
Supramolecular chemistry is often pursued to develop new functions that cannot appear from a single molecule. These functions also include magnetic properties, light responsiveness, self-healing polymers, molecular sensors, etc. Supramolecular research has been applied to develop high-tech sensors, processes to treat radioactive waste, and contrast agents for CAT scans.