In Denial - Forbes.com - Sent Using Google Toolbar

In Denial - Forbes.com

In Denial
Matthew Herper 04.21.08, 12:00 AM ET

The Forbes Global 2000
Global High Performers
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Complete Contents

The latest cholesterol mess shows how big pharma just can't seem to face up to bad results.

When questions first emerged about a small study testing their $5 billion cholesterol pills Zetia and Vytorin, Merck (nyse: MRK - news - people ) and Schering-Plough (nyse: SGP - news - people ) pooh-poohed its importance. "I don't know why this would have any impact on mainstream use," Schering Chief Executive Fred Hassan told analysts in January. But newly released results say that these two immensely lucrative drugs don't impede plaque buildup in arteries. The New England Journal of Medicine even published two editorials telling doctors to use them as a last resort (a conclusion Merck and Schering disputed vigorously; the study showed no safety problems).

For the drug industry it looks like another case of putting its head in the sand. Positive results are taken as proof that a medicine works. Catastrophic failures are explained away. Companies split hairs over side effects instead of recognizing them head-on. By doing so, they raise more doubts and contribute to a public image that is bound to hurt them, if not on the prescription pad then in legislative enactments.

--Concerns emerged in 2001 that Merck's painkiller Vioxx was causing heart attacks and strokes. But the company insisted the risk was an illusion caused by comparing Vioxx with naproxen, another pain pill they said protected the heart. Merck yanked Vioxx in 2004 after finding it boosted the risk of heart attacks. If it had admitted the risk early, Vioxx might still be on the market for the small number of patients who really need an anti-inflammatory drug as easy on the stomach as Vioxx was.

--In 2004 a panel convened by the American Diabetes Association said Eli Lilly (nyse: LLY - news - people )'s Zyprexa was more likely to cause diabetes than other, similar schizophrenia drugs. Lilly contested that conclusion as use of the drug in the U.S. began to slump. In 2005 a big government study showed that Zyprexa was marginally more effective than its rivals but also caused more weight gain and raised blood sugar and cholesterol. Lilly stands behind the drug.

--Not owning up to problems can lead to costly failures. Pfizer (nyse: PFE - news - people ) kept pushing forward with its pill torcetrapib, designed to prevent heart attacks, despite the fact the drug raised blood pressure. It turned out the medicine caused heart attacks and deaths, something Pfizer might have prevented by switching to backup molecules it was already testing.

--Sanofi-Aventis (nyse: SNY - news - people ) hyped its experimental rimonabant as a way to combat obesity but downplayed the drug's psychiatric side effect, depression. A Food & Drug Administration advisory panel rejected the medicine outright last year not only because it thought the drug could cause suicides, but also because Sanofi had done a bad job measuring exactly how big the risk was.

Part of the reason for these blind spots is that drugmakers are in a hurry to make as much money as they can off their medicines before patents expire. The patent clock starts ticking when a molecule is made in the lab or a new use for it is discovered. It doesn't stop ticking while a drugmaker does a five-year study to compare the drug, in safety and efficacy, with the alternatives. "Patents don't last forever," says Paul Thompson, chief of cardiology for Hartford Hospital and a consultant to drugmakers. "If prescriptions slow, that's revenue you'll never recapture."

Warning signs of trouble ahead: John McCain has said that drug companies are the bad guys. Hillary Clinton, whose health plan the industry reviled a decade ago, is getting big pharma money, including from Pfizer Chairman Jeffrey Kindler. Maybe someone should tell the shareholders?


Isosbestic point - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Sent Using Google Toolbar

Isosbestic point - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Isosbestic point

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Isosbestic point in the bromocresol green spectrum. The spectra of basic, acid and intermediate pH solutions are shown. The analytical concentration of the dye is same in all solutions.
Isosbestic point in the bromocresol green spectrum. The spectra of basic, acid and intermediate pH solutions are shown. The analytical concentration of the dye is same in all solutions.

In spectroscopy, an isosbestic point is a specific wavelength at which two (or more) chemical species have the same molar absorptivity (ε).

When an isosbestic plot is constructed by the superposition of the absorption spectra of two species (whether by using molar absorptivity for the representation, or by using absorbance and keeping the same molar concentration for both species), the isosbestic point corresponds to a wavelength at which these spectra cross each other.

A pair of substances can have several isosbestic points in their spectra.

When a 1-to-1 (one mole of reactant gives one mole of product) chemical reaction (including equilibria) involves a pair of substances with an isosbestic point, the absorbance of the reaction mixture at this wavelength remains invariant, regardless of the extent of reaction (or the position of the chemical equilibrium). This occurs because the two substances absorb light of that specific wavelength to the same extent, and the analytical concentration remains constant.

For the reaction:

X \rightarrow Y

the analytical concentration is the same at any point in the reaction:

 c_X + c_Y = c \,.

The absorbance of the reaction mixture (assuming it depends only on X and Y) is:

A = l\cdot (\epsilon_{X} c_{X} + \epsilon_{Y} c_{Y} ).

But at the isosbestic point both molar absorptivities are the same:

\epsilon_X = \epsilon_Y = \epsilon \,.

Hence, the absorbance

A = l\cdot (\epsilon_{X} c_{X} + \epsilon_{Y} c_{Y} )=l\cdot\epsilon \cdot (c_{X} + c_{Y} )=l\cdot\epsilon\cdot c

does not depend on the extent of reaction (i.e. in the particular concentrations of X and Y)

[edit] Applications

Image:Isosbestic graph.gif
Isosbestic point as is used in oximetry.

In chemical kinetics, isosbestic points are used as reference points in the study of reaction rates, as the absorbance at those wavelengths remains constant throughout the whole reaction.

Isosbestic points are used in medicine in a laboratory technique called oximetry to determine hemoglobin concentration, regardless of its saturation. Oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin have isosbestic points at 590 nm and near 800 nm.

Isosbestic points are also used in clinical chemistry, as a quality assurance method, to verify the accuracy in the wavelength of a spectrophotometer. This is done by measuring the spectra of a standard substance at two different pH conditions (above and below the pKa of the susbtance). The standards used include potassium dichromate (isosbestic points at 339 and 445 nm), bromothymol blue (325 and 498 nm) and congo red (541 nm). The wavelength of the isosbestic point determined does not depend on the concentration of the substance used, and so, it becomes a very reliable reference.


501(c) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Sent Using Google Toolbar

501(c) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Section 501(c)(3) is a tax law provision granting exemption from the federal income tax to non-profit organizations. This exemption does not cover other federal taxes such as employment taxes.

501(c)(3) exemptions apply to corporations, and any community chest, fund, or foundation, organized and operated exclusively for religious, charitable, scientific, testing for public safety, literary, or educational purposes, or to foster national or international amateur sports competition, or for the prevention of cruelty to children or animals.

Another provision, 26 U.S.C. § 170, provides a deduction, for federal income tax purposes, for some donors who make charitable contributions to most types of 501(c)(3) organizations, among others. Regulations specify which such deductions must be verifiable in order to be allowed (e.g., receipts for donations over $250).

Testing for public safety is described under section 509(a)(4) of the code which makes the organization a public charity and not a private foundation, but contributions to 509(a)(4) organizations are not deductible by the donor for federal income, estate, or gift tax purposes.

The three principal classifications of 501(c)(3) organizations are as follows:

A public charity, identified by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) as "not a private foundation," normally receives a substantial part of its income, directly or indirectly, from the general public or from the government. The public support must be fairly broad, not limited to a few individuals or families. Public charities are defined in the Internal Revenue Code under sections 509(a)(1) through 509(a)(4).

A private foundation, sometimes called a non-operating foundation, receives most of its income from investments and endowments. This income is used to make grants to other organizations, rather than being disbursed directly for charitable activities. Private foundations are defined in the Internal Revenue Code under section 509(a) as 501(c)(3) organizations which do not qualify as public charities.

A private operating foundation is a private foundation that devotes most of its earnings and assets directly to the conduct of its tax exempt purposes, rather than to making grants to other organizations for these purposes. Private operating foundations are defined in the Internal Revenue Code under section 4942(j)(3).

Nokia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Sent Using Google Toolbar

Nokia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nokia    · Telecom

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This article is about the telecommunications corporation. For the Finnish town, see Nokia, Finland. For other uses, see Nokia (disambiguation).
Nokia Corporation
Type PublicOyj
Founded Nokia, Finland (1865)
Headquarters Flag of Finland Espoo, Finland
Key people Fredrik Idestam, Founder in 1865
Kari Kairamo, CEO in the 1980s
Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo, President & CEO
Jorma Ollila, Chairman
Industry Telecommunications
Products Mobile phones
Multimedia computers
Software and services
Revenue 51.058 bn (2007)[1]
Operating income €7.985 bn (2007)
Net income €7.205 bn (2007)
Employees 112,262 as of December 31, 2007[2]
Subsidiaries Nokia Siemens Networks
Navteq (pending merger)
Slogan Connecting People
Website www.nokia.com

Nokia Corporation (OMXNOK1V, NYSENOK, FWB:NOA3) is a Finnish multinational communications corporation, focused on wired and wireless telecommunications, with 112,262 employees in 120 countries, sales in more than 150 countries and global annual revenue of 51.058 billion euros as of 2007.[1][3] It is the world's largest manufacturer of mobile telephones: its global device market share was about 40% in Q4 of 2007.[2] Nokia produces mobile phones for every major market segment and protocol, including GSM, CDMA, and W-CDMA (UMTS). Nokia's subsidiary Nokia Siemens Networks produces telecommunications network equipments, solutions and services.

Nokia's corporate headquarters are located in Espoo, a city neighbouring Finland's capital Helsinki. It has sites for research and development, manufacturing and sales in many continents throughout the world. Nokia employed 21,453 people in R&D in 2006.[3] Nokia Research Center, founded in 1986, is Nokia's industrial research unit of about 800 researchers, engineers and scientists.[4] It has sites in seven countries: Finland, Denmark, Germany, China, Japan, United Kingdom and United States. Production facilities are located at Espoo, Oulu and Salo, Finland; Manaus, Brazil; Beijing, Dongguan and Suzhou, China; Fleet, England; Bochum (closing planned for mid-2008),[5] Germany; Komárom, Hungary; Chennai, India; Reynosa, Mexico; Cluj-Napoca, Romania[6] and Masan, South Korea.[7][8] Nokia's Design Department remains in Salo, Finland.

Nokia plays a very large role in the economy of Finland: it is by far the largest Finnish company, accounting for about a third of the market capitalization of the Helsinki Stock Exchange (OMX Helsinki) as of 2007; a unique situation for an industrialized country.[9] It is an important employer in Finland and several small companies have grown into large ones as Nokia's subcontractors. Nokia increased Finland's GDP by more than 1.5% in 1999 alone. In 2004 Nokia's share of the Finland's GDP was 3.5% and accounted for almost a quarter of Finland's exports in 2003. In 2006, Nokia generated revenue that for the first time exceeded the state budget of Finland.

Finns have ranked Nokia many times as the best Finnish brand and employer. Nokia is listed as the 5th most valuable global brand in BusinessWeek's Best Global Brands list of 2007 (1st non-US company),[10] the 20th most admirable company worldwide in Fortune's World's Most Admired Companies list of 2007 (1st in network communications, 4th non-US company),[11] and is the world's 119th largest company in Fortune Global 500 list of 2007, up from 131 of the previous year.[12]



[edit] History

The Nokia House, Nokia's headquarters located by the Gulf of Finland in Keilaniemi, Espoo, was constructed between 1995 and 1997. It is the working place of more than 1,000 Nokia employees.
The Nokia House, Nokia's headquarters located by the Gulf of Finland in Keilaniemi, Espoo, was constructed between 1995 and 1997. It is the working place of more than 1,000 Nokia employees.

[edit] Pre-telecommunications era

What is known today as Nokia (pronounced /ˈnoʊkiə/,[citation needed] Finnish IPA: [ˈnokiɑ]) was established in 1865 as a wood-pulp mill by Knut Fredrik Idestam on the banks of the Tammerkoski rapids in the town of Tampere, in south-western Finland. The company was later relocated to the town of Nokia by the Nokianvirta river, which had better resources for hydropower production. That's also where the company got its name that it still uses today. The name Nokia originated from the river which flowed through the town. The river itself, Nokianvirta, was named after the old Finnish word originally meaning a dark, furry animal that was locally known as the nokia, or sable, later pine marten.

Finnish Rubber Works established its factories in the beginning of 20th century nearby and began using Nokia as its brand. Shortly after World War I Finnish Rubber Works acquired Nokia Wood Mills as well as Finnish Cable Works, a producer of telephone and telegraph cables. All these three companies were merged into the Nokia Corporation in 1967.

The Nokia Corporation created in the 1967 fusion was involved in many sectors, producing at one time or another paper products, bicycle and car tires, footwear (including Wellington boots), personal computers, communications cables, televisions, electricity generation machinery, capacitors, aluminium, etc.

[edit] Telecommunications era

The seeds of the current incarnation of Nokia were planted with the founding of the electronics section of the cable division in the 1960s. In the 1967 fusion, that section was separated into its own division, and began manufacturing telecommunications equipment.

[edit] First mobile phones

Nokia's early model Mobira Cityman 200
Nokia's early model Mobira Cityman 200

Nokia had been producing commercial and military mobile radio communications technology since the 1960s. Since 1964 Nokia had developed VHF-radio simultaneously with Salora Oy, which later in 1971 also developed the ARP-phone. In 1979 the merger of these two companies resulted in the establishment of Mobira Oy. Mobira began developing mobile phones for the Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) network standard that went online in the 1980s and in 1982 it introduced its first car phone, the Mobira Senator for NMT 450 networks.

Nokia bought Salora Oy in 1984 and now owning 100% of the company, changed the company's telecommunication branch name to Nokia-Mobira Oy. The Mobira Talkman, launched in 1984, was one of the world's first transportable phones. In 1987, Nokia introduced one of the world's first handheld phones, the Mobira Cityman 900. While the Mobira Senator of 1982 had weighed 9.8 kg (22 lb) and the Talkman just under 5 kg (11 lb), the Mobira Cityman weighed only 800 g (28 oz) with the battery and had a price tag of 24,000 Finnish marks (approximately €4,560).[13] Despite the high price, the first phones were almost snatched from the sales assistants' hands. Initially, the mobile phone was a "yuppie" product and a status symbol.

In 1988, Jorma Nieminen, resigning from the post of CEO of the mobile phone unit, along with two other employees from the unit, started a notable mobile phone company of their own, Benefon Oy. One year later, Nokia Mobira Oy became Nokia Mobile Phones and in 1991 the first GSM phone was launched.

[edit] Nokia's involvement in GSM

Nordic Mobile Telephony was the world's first mobile telephony standard that enabled international roaming, and provided valuable experience for Nokia for its close participation in developing Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). It is a digital standard which came to dominate the world of mobile telephony in the 1990s, in mid-2006 accounting for about two billion mobile telephone subscribers in the world, or about 80% percent of the total, in more than 200 countries. The world's first commercial GSM call was made in 1991 in Helsinki over a Nokia-supplied network, by then Prime Minister of Finland Harri Holkeri, using a Nokia phone.

[edit] Networking equipment

In the 1970s, Nokia became more involved in the telecommunications industry by developing the Nokia DX200, a digital switch for telephone exchanges. In 1982, a DX200 switch became the world's first digital telephone switch to be put into operational use. The DX200 became the workhorse of the network equipment division. Its modular and flexible architecture enabled it to be developed into various switching products.

For a while in the 1970s, Nokia's network equipment production was separated into Telefenno, a company jointly owned by the parent corporation and by a company owned by the Finnish state. In 1987 the state sold its shares to Nokia and in 1992 the name was changed to Nokia Telecommunications.

In the 1970s and 1980s Nokia developed the Sanomalaitejärjestelmä ("Message device system") for Finnish Defence Forces. [14]

[edit] Personal computers

In the 1980s, Nokia produced a series of personal computers called MikroMikko.[15] However, the PC division was sold to ICL, which later became part of Fujitsu. That company later transferred its personal computer operations to Fujitsu Siemens Computers, which shut down its only factory in Finland (in the town of Espoo, where computers had been produced since the 1960s) at the end of March 2000[16], thus ending large-scale PC manufacturing in the country. Nokia was also known for producing very high quality CRT displays for PC and larger systems application.

[edit] Challenges of growth

In the 1980s, during the era of its CEO Kari Kairamo, Nokia expanded into new fields, mostly by acquisitions. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the corporation ran into serious financial problems, a major reason being its heavy losses by the television manufacturing division (these problems probably contributed to Kairamo taking his own life in 1988). Nokia responded by streamlining its telecommunications divisions, and by divesting itself of the television and PC divisions. Jorma Ollila, who became the CEO in 1992, made a strategic decision to concentrate solely on telecommunications. Thus, during the rest of the 1990s, Nokia continued to divest itself of all of its non-telecommunications divisions.

The exploding worldwide popularity of mobile telephones, beyond even Nokia's most optimistic predictions, caused a logistics crisis in the mid-1990s. This prompted Nokia to overhaul its entire logistics operation. Logistics continues to be one of Nokia's major advantages over its rivals, along with greater economies of scale.

[edit] In the new millennium

This article or section may contain an inappropriate mixture of prose and timeline.
Please help convert this timeline into prose or, if necessary, a list.
Progression of size in Nokia mobile phones
Progression of size in Nokia mobile phones
Nokia 6300
Nokia 6300

In April 2003, the troubles of the networks equipment division caused the corporation to resort to similar streamlining practices on that side, with layoffs and organizational restructuring[17]. This, however, diminished Nokia's public image in Finland[18][19], and produced a number of court cases along with an episode of a documentary television show critical towards Nokia.[20]

Despite these occasional crises, Nokia has been phenomenally successful in its chosen field. This growth has come mostly during the era of Jorma Ollila and his team of about half a dozen close colleagues. In June 2006, this era came to an end with Ollila leaving the CEO position to become the chairman of Shell. The new CEO of Nokia is Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo.

On February 2006 Nokia and Sanyo announced a MOU to create a joint venture addressing the CDMA handset business. A few months later, in June, both companies announced ending their negotiations without agreement. Nokia also stated their decision to pull out of CDMA R&D, with the intention to continue CDMA business in selected markets.[21]

On February 10, 2006, Nokia acquired Intellisync Corporation, a provider of data and PIM synchronization software.

On June 19, 2006, Nokia and Siemens AG announced the companies are to merge their mobile and fixed-line phone network equipment businesses to create one of the world's largest network firms. Both companies will have a 50% stake in the infrastructure company, to be headquartered in the Helsinki area, and to be called Nokia Siemens Networks. The companies predict annual sales of €16 bn and cost savings of €1.5 bn a year by 2010. About 20,000 Nokia employees will be transferred to this new company.

In March 2007, Nokia signed a memorandum with Cluj County Council, Romania to open a new plant near the city in Jucu commune.[22][23]

In May 2007 Nokia announced its Nokia 1100, with over 200 million units shipped, is the best-selling mobile phone of all time and the world's top-selling consumer electronics product.[24]

In July 2007 Nokia acquired all assets of Twango, the comprehensive media sharing solution for organizing and sharing photos, videos and other personal media.[25]

In August 2007 Nokia launched a series of web services under the brand name Ovi that allows users to download games, maps and music directly to their phones.

In September 2007 Nokia announced their intention to acquire Enpocket, a supplier of mobile advertising technology and services.[26]

In October 2007 Pending shareholder and regulatory approval, Nokia acquires Navteq, a U.S.-based supplier of digital mapping data, for a price of $8.1 bn.[27]

At the Nokia World conference in December 2007, Nokia announced their "Comes With Music" program: Nokia device buyers are to receive a year of complimentary access to music downloads.[28]

At Mobile world conference in Barcelona, Nokia announched the launch of Nokia N96 model. .[29]

[edit] Product divisions

Nokia comprises four business groups: Mobile Phones, Multimedia, Enterprise Solutions and Networks, plus various horizontal entities such as Customer and Market Operations, and Technology Platforms.

On June 20, 2007, Nokia announced that it would reorganize into three business units, effective January 1, 2008:

  • Devices: This division combines its existing mainline mobile phones division with the separate subdivisions manufacturing Multimedia (Nseries) and Enterprise (Eseries) class devices as well as formerly centralized core devices R&D - called Technology Platforms, headed by Kai Öistämö.
  • Services and Software: This combines the existing Enterprise and Consumer driver services businesses previously hosted in Multimedia and Enterprise as well as a number of new aquisitions (Loudeye, Gate5, Enpocket, Intellisync, Avvenu), headed by Niklas Savander.
  • Markets: The successor organization to Nokia's Customer and Market Operations division, represents the sales, marketing and manufacturing functions of the company, led by Anssi Vanjoki.

[edit] Mobile Phones

Evolution of the Nokia Communicator. Models 9000, 9110, 9210 and 9500 shown.
Evolution of the Nokia Communicator. Models 9000, 9110, 9210 and 9500 shown.

Nokia's Mobile Phones division provides the general public with mobile voice and data products across a wide range of mobile devices. The division aims to target primarily high-volume category sales of mobile phones and devices, with consumers being the most important customer segment. The devices are based on GSM/EDGE, 3G/WCDMA and CDMA cellular technologies.

Nokia believes that design, brand, ease of use and price are mainstream mobile phones' most important considerations to customers. Nokia's product portfolio includes camera phones with features such as megapixel cameras and MP3 players which appeal to the mass market.

In the first quarter of 2006 Nokia sold over 15 million MP3 capable mobile phones, which means that Nokia is not only the world's leading supplier of mobile phones and digital cameras (as most of Nokia's mobile telephones feature digital cameras, it is also believed that Nokia has recently overtaken Kodak in camera production making it the largest in the world), Nokia is now also the leading supplier of digital audio players (MP3 players). Nokia aims to sell 80 million music phones by the end of 2006, outpacing sales of devices such as the iPod from Apple.[30]

In the year 2007, Nokia increased its range by offering 5 megapixel camera mobile phone Nokia N95 having Carl Zeiss Lens.

[edit] Multimedia

The Nokia N93, an example of Nokia's Nseries multimedia product lineup.
The Nokia N93, an example of Nokia's Nseries multimedia product lineup.

The Multimedia division's purpose is to design devices and applications that bring multimedia experiences to their customers. These devices allow people to create, access and consume multimedia, as well as share their experiences with others. The devices are included with a wide range of connectivity such as GSM, 3G/WCDMA, WLAN and Bluetooth. Nokia Multimedia Nseries extensively uses Symbian OS.

The Multimedia group also works with other companies outside the telecommunications industry to make advances in the technology and bring new applications and possibilities in areas such as Internet services, optics, music synchronization and streaming media.

[edit] Loudeye

In August 2006, Nokia acquired online music distributor Loudeye Corp for $60 m. The company has been developing this into an online music service in the hope of using it to generate handset sales. The service is expected to launch in late 2007 and would rival iTunes.

[edit] MOSH

In August 2007, Nokia launched their new social network, dubbed MOSH. MOSH by Nokia is the first-ever social network built by a handset manufacturer. MOSH aims to bring social, media-based networks to the mobile environment. Users can upload, download, share, and bookmark a variety of media - audio files, video files, documents, applications, games, images.[31]

[edit] Comes With Music

On December 4, 2007, Nokia unveiled their plans for the "Nokia Comes With Music" initiative, a program that would partner with Universal Music Group International to bundle a year's worth of unlimited, DRM-free downloads with the purchase of a Nokia phone. Following the termination of the year of free downloads, tracks can be kept without having to renew the subscription. Downloads will be both PC- and mobile-based.[32]

[edit] Enterprise Solutions

Nokia headquarters in Keilaniemi, Espoo, Finland.
Nokia headquarters in Keilaniemi, Espoo, Finland.

As the name implies, the Nokia Enterprise Solutions offers businesses, corporations and institutions a broad range of products and solutions, such as enterprise-grade mobile devices, underlying security infrastructure, software and services. Nokia also works with a range of companies to provide network security, bring mobilized corporate e-mail and extend corporate telephone systems to work with Nokia's mobile devices. A range of companies (Microsoft, eDeskOnline) have tailored their enterprise software to run on Nokia phones.

[edit] Nokia Siemens Networks

Nokia Siemens Networks (previously Nokia Networks) provides mobile network infrastructure, communications and networks service platforms, as well as professional services to operators and service providers. Networks focuses in: GSM, EDGE, 3G/WCDMA and WiMAX radio access networks; core networks with increasing IP and multiaccess capabilities; and services.

At the end of 2005, Nokia Networks had more than 150 mobile network customers in more than 60 countries, with its systems serving in excess of 400 million subscribers.

On June 19, 2006 Nokia and Siemens AG announced the companies are to merge their mobile and fixed-line phone network equipment businesses to create one of the world's largest network firms, called Nokia Siemens Networks. The Nokia Siemens Networks brand identity, created by London and Tokyo based branding agency Moving Brands, was subsequently launched at the 3GSM World Congress in Barcelona in February 2007[33] [34].

[edit] .mobi and the Mobile Internet

Nokia was the first proponent of a Top Level Domain (TLD) specifically for the mobile internet and, as a result, was instrumental in the launch of the .mobi domain name extension in September 2006 as an official backer.[35][36][37] Since then, Nokia has launched the largest mobile portal, Nokia.mobi, which receives over 100 million visits a month.[38] It followed that with the launch of a mobile Ad Service to cater to the growing demand for mobile advertisement.[39]

[edit] Corporate affairs

[edit] Historical logos

Nokia Company logo. Founded in Tampere in 1865, logo 1966.

Nokia – Finnish Rubber Works Ltd, founded in Helsinki in 1898.
Logo 1965–1966.

The Nokia "arrows" logo before its Connecting People logo.

Nokia introduced its "Connecting People" advertising slogan, coined by Ove Strandberg.[40]
The current logo's slogan uses Nokia's proprietary Nokia font. This earlier font shown here was Times Roman SC (Small Caps).[41]

[edit] Corporate governance

The operations of Nokia are managed by the Group Executive Board (left), under the direction of the Board of Directors (right). The Chairman and the rest of the Group Executive Board members are appointed by the Board of Directors. Only the Chairman of the Group Executive Board can belong to both, the Board of Directors and the Group Executive Board. The operations of the company are managed within the framework set by the Finnish Companies Act,[42] Nokia's Articles of Association[43] and Corporate Governance Guidelines,[44] and related Board adopted charters.

Group Executive Board [45]
Flag of Finland Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo (Chairman), b. 1953
President, CEO and Group Executive Board Chairman of Nokia Corporation since June 1, 2006
Member of the Nokia Board of Directors since May 3, 2007
With Nokia 1980–1981, rejoined 1982, Group Executive Board member since 1990
Flag of Finland Robert Andersson, b. 1960
Executive Vice President, Customer and Market Operations
Joined Nokia 1985, Group Executive Board member since 2005
Flag of the United Kingdom/Flag of Australia Simon Beresford-Wylie, b. 1958
Chief Executive Officer, Nokia Siemens Networks
Joined Nokia 1998, Group Executive Board member since 2005
Flag of Finland Timo Ihamuotila, b. 1966
Head of Sales and Portfolio Management for Nokia Mobile Phones
With Nokia 1993–1996, rejoined 1999, Group Executive Board member since 2007
Flag of the United States Mary T. McDowell, b. 1964
Executive Vice President and General Manager of Enterprise Solutions
Joined Nokia 2004, Group Executive Board member since 2004
Flag of Norway Hallstein Mørk, b. 1953
Executive Vice President, Human Resources
Joined Nokia 1999, Group Executive Board member since 2004
Flag of Finland Dr. Tero Ojanperä, b. 1966
Executive Vice President, Chief Technology Officer
Joined Nokia 1990, Group Executive Board member since 2005
Flag of Finland Niklas Savander, b. 1962
Executive Vice President, Technology Platforms
Joined Nokia 1997, Group Executive Board member since 2006
Flag of the United States Richard A. Simonson, b. 1958
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
Joined Nokia 2001, Group Executive Board member since 2004
Flag of Finland Veli Sundbäck, b. 1946
Executive Vice President, Corporate Relations and Responsibility of Nokia Corporation
Joined Nokia 1996, Group Executive Board member since 1996
Flag of Finland Anssi Vanjoki, b. 1956
Executive Vice President and General Manager of Multimedia
Joined Nokia 1991, Group Executive Board member since 1998
Flag of Finland Dr. Kai Öistämö, b. 1964
Executive Vice President and General Manager of Mobile Phones
Joined Nokia 1991, Group Executive Board member since 2005
Board of Directors [45][46]
Flag of Finland Jorma Ollila (Chairman), b. 1950
Board member since 1995, Chairman of the Board of Directors since 1999
Chairman of the Board of Directors of Royal Dutch Shell PLC
Flag of the United States Dame Marjorie Scardino (Vice Chairman), b. 1947
Board member since 2001
Chairman of the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee, Member of the Personnel Committee
Chief Executive Officer and member of the Board of Directors of Pearson PLC
Flag of Finland Georg Ehrnrooth, b. 1940
Board member since 2000
Member of the Audit Committee, Member of the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee
Flag of India Lalita D. Gupte, b. 1948
Board member since 2007
Member of the Audit Committee
Non-executive Chairman of the ICICI Venture Funds Management Co Ltd.
Flag of Finland Dr. Bengt Holmström, b. 1949
Board member since 1999
Paul A. Samuelson Professor of Economics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
joint appointment at the MIT Sloan School of Management
Flag of Germany Dr. Henning Kagermann, b. 1947
Board member since 2007
CEO and Chairman of the Executive Board of SAP AG
Flag of Finland Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo, b. 1953
Board member since 2007
President and CEO of Nokia Corporation
Flag of Sweden Per Karlsson, b. 1955
Board member since 2002, Independent Corporate Advisor
Chairman of the Personnel Committee, Member of the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee
Flag of Finland Keijo Suila, b. 1945
Board member since 2006
Member of the Audit Committee
Flag of Finland Vesa Vainio, b. 1942
Board member since 1993
Member of the Audit Committee

[edit] Corporate culture

Nokia's official corporate culture manifesto, The Nokia Way, emphasises the speed and flexibility of decision-making in a flat, networked organization, although the corporation's size necessarily imposes a certain amount of bureaucracy.

The official business language of Nokia is English. All documentation is written in English, and is used in official intra-company spoken communication and e-mail.

Until May 2007, the Nokia Values were Customer Satisfaction, Respect, Achievement, and Renewal. In May 2007, Nokia redefined its values after initiating a series of discussions worldwide as to what the new values of the company should be. Based on the employee suggestions, the new values were defined as: Engaging You, Achieving Together, Passion for Innovation and Very Human.[47]

[edit] Research cooperation with universities

[edit] See also

[edit] References and footnotes

  1. ^ a b Nokia − Annual Information 2007
  2. ^ a b "Q4 2007 Quarterly results". Press release.
  3. ^ a b Nokia in brief
  4. ^ Nokia Research Center, October 2007
  5. ^ Nokia Press Release – Nokia plans closure of its Bochum site in Germany January 15, 2008
  6. ^ Nokia Press Release - Nokia to set up a new mobile device factory in Romania March 26, 2007
  7. ^ Nokia - Production units
  8. ^ Nokia - Economic impact - Company impact - CR Report 2006 - Corporate responsibility
  9. ^ (Finnish) Taloussanomat.fi – Ulkomaalaiset valtaavat pörssiyhtiöitä
  10. ^ BusinessWeek – The 100 Top Brands 2007 (Scoreboard)
  11. ^ Fortune − World's Most Admired Companies 2007 - Top 50
  12. ^ Fortune – Global 500
  13. ^ Nokia – Mobira Cityman – The move to mobile
  14. ^ Finnish Defence Forces http://www.mil.fi/maavoimat/kalustoesittely/index.dsp?level=81
  15. ^ Old-Computers.com — Nokia MikroMikko 1
  16. ^ EIR Online — Nokia Kilo Plant
  17. ^ Nokia Networks takes strong measures to reduce costs, improve profitability and strengthen leadership position
  18. ^ Nokia Networks to shed 1,800 jobs worldwide; majority of impact felt in Finland
  19. ^ Nokia Networks axes 1,800 staff
  20. ^ YLE.fi − Nokia's Law
  21. ^ [1] [2] [3] [4]
  22. ^ Boston.com
  24. ^ Reuters, 2007-05-03, Nokia's cheap phone tops electronics chart
  25. ^ Nokia acquires Twango. 2007-07-26
  26. ^ Nokia to acquire Enpocket to create a global mobile advertising leader, 2007-09-17
  27. ^ Reuters. "Nokia Offers $8.1 bn For Navteq", New York Times, 2007-10-01. Retrieved on 2007-10-01. 
  28. ^
  29. ^ Nokia N96 Launched. 2008-03-06
  30. ^ Nokia Media and Music Tehcnologies
  31. ^ Nokia launches MOSH social network - Mobilize and Share
  32. ^ Nokia World 2007: Nokia outlines its vision of Internet evolution and commitment to environmental sustainability]
  33. ^ Brand New: The Wave of the Future
  34. ^ Identityworks: Reviews - 2007 - Nokia Siemens
  35. ^ http://domainsmagazine.com/Domains_1/Domain_6853.shtml
  36. ^ dotMobi Investors | dotMobi
  37. ^ Microsoft Word - dotMobi-Haumont-EDITS3.doc
  38. ^ Nokia Ad Business
  39. ^ Nokia introduces mobile ad services | CNET News.com
  40. ^ [5] Helsingin Sanomat 2003-06-01 (finnish)
  41. ^ Nokia's Art Director Juhani Pitkänen, Nokia Strategic Marketing, Brand Identity (2007-09-03)
  42. ^ New Finnish Companies Act designed to increase Finland's competitiveness
  43. ^ Nokia – Articles of Association, May 10, 2007
  44. ^ Corporate Governance Guidelines at Nokia
  45. ^ a b Nokia − Corporate Governance. Retrieved on 2007-8-7.
  46. ^ Change in the Nokia Board of Directors (December 28, 2007)
  47. ^ Nokia – Nokia Way and values

[edit] Further reading

  • Michael Lattanzi, Antti Korhonen, Vishy Gopalakrishnan (2006). Work Goes Mobile: Nokia's Lessons from the Leading Edge. ISBN 0-470-02752-5 .
  • Christian Lindholm, Turkka Keinonen, Harri Kiljander (2003). Mobile Usability: How Nokia Changed the Face of the Mobile Phone. ISBN 0-07-138514-2 .
  • Martti Häikiö (2002). "Nokia: The Inside Story". ISBN 0-273-65983-9 .
  • Trevor Merriden (2001). Business The Nokia Way: Secrets of the World's Fastest Moving Company. ISBN 1-84112-104-5 .
  • Dan Steinbock (2001). The Nokia Revolution: The Story of an Extraordinary Company That Transformed an Industry. ISBN 0-8144-0636-X .

[edit] External links

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