IBDeditorials.com: Editorials, Political Cartoons, and Polls from Investor's Business Daily -- Messy Mortgages - Sent Using Google Toolbar

IBDeditorials.com: Editorials, Political Cartoons, and Polls from Investor's Business Daily -- Messy Mortgages

Messy Mortgages

By INVESTOR'S BUSINESS DAILY | Posted Tuesday, June 17, 2008 4:20 PM PT

Scandal: A number of top Democrats have been caught with their hands in the cookie jar, suggesting corruption in the party linked to the recent home-mortgage meltdown. Will the mainstream media just ignore it?

Read More: Election 2008

The firing of Democrat insider and money-man Jim Johnson a week ago as head of Barack Obama's vice presidential search committee came as no surprise. Johnson, who served as chairman and CEO of Fannie Mae during much of Bill Clinton's presidency, was discovered to have received a favorable mortgage loan from Countrywide Financial's founder and CEO Angelo Mozilo.

This was bad enough. After all, Obama has railed specifically against Mozilo's company, accusing it of taking advantage of ignorant borrowers to make subprime loans it knew wouldn't be paid off and then selling the loans to the quasi-governmental Fannie Mae mortgage agency.

At one point, he even demonized Mozilo for "infecting the economy and helping to create a home foreclosure crisis."

Now it turns out that Johnson wasn't the only Democratic F.O.A. — friend of Angelo.

Sen. Chris Dodd of Connecticut, head of the Senate Banking Committee that oversees Countrywide, also was a recipient of Mozilo's mortgage largesse. So was Kent Conrad, the North Dakotan who chairs the Finance Committee and sits on the Budget Committee.

Both Dodd and Conrad, like Johnson, had potential clout in crafting legislation and regulations that would directly affect Countrywide's future. And both got favorable loans through Countrywide's now-infamous "V.I.P." program.

Dodd's case is illustrative. He took out two mortgages with no closing costs attached, at fixed rates of 4.25% and 4.5%. Sound like something you'd get?

Conrad didn't even know Mozilo. But he phoned him anyway, and got a great deal: a low-interest, virtually no-cost loan to buy a $1 million beach getaway. Favoritism? No way, says Conrad.

Nor were Conrad and Dodd alone. Former Health and Human Services Secretary Donna Shalala and former U.N. ambassador and assistant Secretary of State Richard Holbrooke also benefited, as did one prominent Republican — former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Alphonso Jackson.

Granted, both Shalala and Holbrooke had left public office when they got their deals. But it was reasonable for Mozilo to think they'd serve again in another Democratic administration.

And what, many wonder, was the quid pro quo for all this?

Just a month ago, in unusually harsh language, Dodd ripped into President Bush on the subprime mess and defended a $400 billion plan that would bail out the subprime lending industry — including Mozilo.

Friends of Angelo, indeed.

These sweetheart deals cry out for an investigation. Rep. Jeb Hensarling, R-Texas, does too. On Wednesday, he called for hearings to find out who in Congress got "preferential treatment" on mortgages with Countrywide, the nation's largest home lender.

The Democrats' initial response has been to stall. They hope the problem will disappear until after the election. Given the media's lack of curiosity so far — a small handful of news organizations, including our competitor, the Wall Street Journal, have pushed this story ahead — it looks like the Democrats might get their wish.

But the problem won't go away, and neither will we.

These revelations suggest that, at the very least, the Democratic Party is afflicted with a kind of corruption that taints all recent decisions on the subprime crisis. They need to investigate it fully, immediately and without prejudice — or risk having it blow up in their faces.


Methane - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Sent Using Google Toolbar

Methane - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Other names Marsh gas, firedamp
CAS number [74-82-8]
InChI 1/CH4/h1H4
Molecular formula CH4
Molar mass 16.0425 g/mol
Appearance Colorless gas
Density 0.717 kg/m3, gas
Melting point

-182.5 °C, 91 K, -297 °F

Boiling point

-161.6 °C, 112 K, -259 °F

Solubility in water 3.5 mg/100 mL (17 °C)
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards Highly flammable (F+)
NFPA 704
R-phrases R12
S-phrases (S2), S9, S16, S33
Flash point -188 °C
Related compounds
Related Alkanes Ethane, propane
Related compounds Methanol, chloromethane, formic acid, formaldehyde, silane
Supplementary data page
Structure and
n, εr, etc.
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. It is the simplest alkane, and the principal component of natural gas. Methane's bond angles are 109.5 degrees. Burning methane in the presence of oxygen produces carbon dioxide and water. The relative abundance of methane and its clean burning process makes it a very attractive fuel. However, because it is a gas at normal temperature and pressure, methane is difficult to transport from its source. In its natural gas form, it is generally transported in bulk by pipeline or LNG carriers; few countries still transport it by truck.

Methane is a relatively potent greenhouse gas with a high global warming potential of 72 (averaged over 20 years) or 25 (averaged over 100 years).[1] Methane in the atmosphere is eventually oxidized, producing carbon dioxide and water. As a result, methane in the atmosphere has a half life of seven years (if no methane was added, then every seven years, the amount of methane would halve).

The abundance of methane in the Earth's atmosphere in 1998 was 1745 parts per billion, up from 700 ppb in 1750. In the same time period, CO2 increased from 278 to 365 parts per million. The radiative forcing effect due to this increase in methane abundance is about one-third of that of the CO2 increase.[2] In addition, there is a large, but unknown, amount of methane in methane clathrates in the ocean floors. Global warming could release this methane, which could cause a further sharp rise in global temperatures. Such releases of methane may have been a major factor in previous major extinction events. The Earth's crust also contains huge amounts of methane. Large amounts of methane are produced anaerobically by methanogenesis. Other sources include mud volcanoes which are connected with deep geological faults.



[edit] Properties

Methane is the major component of natural gas, about 87% by volume. At room temperature and standard pressure, methane is a colorless, odorless gas; the smell characteristic of natural gas is an artificial safety measure caused by the addition of an odorant, often methanethiol or ethanethiol. Methane has a boiling point of −161 °C at a pressure of one atmosphere. As a gas it is flammable only over a narrow range of concentrations (5–15%) in air. Liquid methane does not burn unless subjected to high pressure (normally 4–5 atmospheres.)

[edit] Potential health effects

Methane is not toxic; however, it is highly flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is violently reactive with oxidizers, halogens, and some halogen-containing compounds. Methane is also an asphyxiant and may displace oxygen in an enclosed space. Asphyxia may result if the oxygen concentration is reduced to below 19.5% by displacement. The concentrations at which flammable or explosive mixtures form are much lower than the concentration at which asphyxiation risk is significant. When structures are built on or near landfills, methane off-gas can penetrate the buildings' interiors and expose occupants to significant levels of methane. Some buildings have specially engineered recovery systems below their basements to actively capture such fugitive off-gas and vent it away from the building. An example of this type of system is in the Dakin Building, Brisbane, California.

[edit] Reactions of methane

Main reactions with methane are: combustion, steam reforming to syngas, and halogenation. In general, methane reactions are hard to control. Partial oxidation to methanol, for example, is difficult to achieve; the reaction typically progresses all the way to carbon dioxide and water.

[edit] Combustion

In the combustion of methane, several steps are involved:

Methane is believed to form a formaldehyde (HCHO or H2CO). The formaldehyde gives a formyl radical (HCO), which then forms carbon monoxide (CO). The process is called oxidative pyrolysis:

CH4 + O2 → CO + H2 + H2O

Following oxidative pyrolysis, the H2 oxidizes, forming H2O, replenishing the active species, and releasing heat. This occurs very quickly, usually in significantly less than a millisecond.

2H2 + O2 →2H2O

Finally, the CO oxidizes, forming CO2 and releasing more heat. This process is generally slower than the other chemical steps, and typically requires a few to several milliseconds to occur.

2CO + O2 →2CO2

The result of the above is the following total equation:

CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O + 809 kJ[3]

[edit] Hydrogen activation

The strength of the carbon-hydrogen covalent bond in methane is among the strongest in all hydrocarbons, and thus its use as a chemical feedstock is limited. Despite the high activation barrier for breaking the C–H bond, CH4 is still the principal starting material for manufacture of hydrogen in steam reforming. The search for catalysts which can facilitate C–H bond activation in methane and other low alkanes is an area of research with considerable industrial significance.

[edit] Reactions with halogens

Methane reacts with all halogens given appropriate conditions, as follows:

CH4 + X2 → CH3X + HX

where X is a halogen: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), or iodine (I). This mechanism for this process is called free radical halogenation.

[edit] Uses

[edit] Fuel

For more on the use of methane as a fuel, see: natural gas

Methane is important for electrical generation by burning it as a fuel in a gas turbine or steam boiler. Compared to other hydrocarbon fuels, burning methane produces less carbon dioxide for each unit of heat released. At about 891 kJ/mol, methane's combustion heat is lower than any other hydrocarbon; but a ratio with the molecular mass (16.0 g/mol) divided by the heat of combustion (891 kJ/mol) shows that methane, being the simplest hydrocarbon, produces more heat per mass unit than other complex hydrocarbons. In many cities, methane is piped into homes for domestic heating and cooking purposes. In this context it is usually known as natural gas, and is considered to have an energy content of 39 megajoules per cubic meter, or 1,000 BTU per standard cubic foot.

Methane in the form of compressed natural gas is used as a fuel for vehicles, and is claimed to be more environmentally friendly than alternatives such as gasoline/petrol and diesel. Research is being conducted by NASA on methane's potential as a rocket fuel. One advantage of methane is that it is abundant in many parts of the solar system and it could potentially be harvested in situ, providing fuel for a return journey. [1]

[edit] Industrial uses

Methane is used in industrial chemical processes and may be transported as a refrigerated liquid (liquefied natural gas, or LNG). While leaks from a refrigerated liquid container are initially heavier than air due to the increased density of the cold gas, the gas at ambient temperature is lighter than air. Gas pipelines distribute large amounts of natural gas, of which methane is the principal component.

In the chemical industry, methane is the feedstock of choice for the production of hydrogen, methanol, acetic acid, and acetic anhydride. When used to produce any of these chemicals, methane is first converted to synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by steam reforming. In this process, methane and steam react on a nickel catalyst at high temperatures (700–1100 °C).

CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2

The ratio of carbon monoxide to hydrogen in synthesis gas can then be adjusted via the water gas shift reaction to the appropriate value for the intended purpose.

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2

Less significant methane-derived chemicals include acetylene, prepared by passing methane through an electric arc, and the chloromethanes (chloromethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride), produced by reacting methane with chlorine gas. However, the use of these chemicals is declining, acetylene as it is replaced by less costly substitutes, and the chloromethanes due to health and environmental concerns.

[edit] Sources of methane

[edit] Natural gas fields

The major source of methane is extraction from geological deposits known as natural gas fields. It is associated with other hydrocarbon fuels and sometimes accompanied by helium and nitrogen. The gas at shallow levels (low pressure) is formed by anaerobic decay of organic matter and reworked methane from deep under the Earth's surface. In general, sediments buried deeper and at higher temperatures than those which give oil generate natural gas. Methane is also produced in considerable quantities from the decaying organic wastes of solid waste landfills.

[edit] Alternative sources

Apart from gas fields an alternative method of obtaining methane is via biogas generated by the fermentation of organic matter including manure, wastewater sludge, municipal solid waste (including landfills), or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. Methane hydrates/clathrates (icelike combinations of methane and water on the sea floor, found in vast quantities) are a potential future source of methane. Cattle belch methane accounts for 16% of the world's annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. [4] The livestock sector in general (primarily cattle, chickens, and pigs) produces 37% of all human-induced methane".[5] However animals "that put their energies into making gas are less efficient at producing milk and meat". Early research has found a number of medical treatments and dietary adjustments that help limit the production of methane in ruminants.[6] [7] [8]

Industrially, methane can be created from common atmospheric gases and hydrogen (produced, perhaps, by electrolysis) through chemical reactions such as the Sabatier process, Fischer-Tropsch process. Coal bed methane extraction is a method for extracting methane from a coal deposit.

A recent scientific experiment has also yielded results pointing to one species of plant[9] producing trace methane.[10].

[edit] Methane in Earth's atmosphere

Methane concentrations graph
Methane concentrations graph
Computer models showing the amount of methane (parts per million by volume) at the surface (top) and in the stratosphere (bottom).
Computer models showing the amount of methane (parts per million by volume) at the surface (top) and in the stratosphere (bottom).

Early in the Earth's history—about 3.5 billion years ago—there was 1,000 times as much methane in the atmosphere as there is now. The earliest methane was released into the atmosphere by volcanic activity. During this time, Earth's earliest life appeared. These first, ancient bacteria added to the methane concentration by converting hydrogen and carbon dioxide into methane and water. Oxygen did not become a major part of the atmosphere until photosynthetic organisms evolved later in Earth's history. With no oxygen, methane stayed in the atmosphere longer and at higher concentrations than it does today.

In present times, due to the increase in oxygen, the amount of methane has decreased. The average mole concentration of methane at the Earth's surface in 1998 was 1,745 ppb.[11] Its concentration is higher in the northern hemisphere as most sources (both natural and human) are larger. The concentrations vary seasonally with a minimum in the late summer mainly due to removal by the hydroxyl radical.

Methane is created near the surface, and it is carried into the stratosphere by rising air in the tropics. Uncontrolled build-up of methane in Earth's atmosphere is naturally checked—although human influence can upset this natural regulation—by methane's reaction with hydroxyl radicals formed from singlet oxygen atoms and with water vapor.

[edit] Methane as a greenhouse gas

Methane in the Earth's atmosphere is an important greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 25 over a 100-year period. This means that a methane emission will have 25 times the impact on temperature of a carbon dioxide emission of the same mass over the following 100 years. Methane has a large effect for a brief period (about 10 years), whereas carbon dioxide has a small effect for a long period (over 100 years). Because of this difference in effect and time period, the global warming potential of methane over a 20 year time period is 72. The Earth's methane concentration has increased by about 150% since 1750, and it accounts for 20% of the total radiative forcing from all of the long-lived and globally mixed greenhouse gases.[12]

[edit] Emissions of methane

Houweling et al. (1999) give the following values for methane emissions (Tg/a=teragrams per year):[11]

Global average methane concentrations from measurement (NOAA)
Global average methane concentrations from measurement (NOAA)
Origin CH4 Emission
Mass (Tg/a) Type (%/a) Total (%/a)
Natural Emissions
Wetlands (incl. Rice agriculture) 225 83 37
Termites 20 7 3
Ocean 15 6 3
Hydrates 10 4 2
Natural Total 270 100 45
Anthropogenic Emissions
Energy 110 33 18
Landfills 40 12 7
Ruminants (Livestock) 115 35 19
Waste treatment 25 8 4
Biomass burning 40 12 7
Anthropogenic Total 330 100 55
Soils -30 -5 -5
Tropospheric OH -510 -88 -85
Stratospheric loss -40 -7 -7
Sink Total -580 -100 -97
Emissions + Sinks
Imbalance (trend) +20 ~2.78 Tg/ppb +7.19 ppb/a

Slightly over half of the total emission is due to human activity.[12]

Living plants (e.g. forests) have recently been identified as a potentially important source of methane. A 2006 paper calculated emissions of 62–236 Tg a-1, and "this newly identified source may have important implications".[13][14] However the authors stress "our findings are preliminary with regard to the methane emission strength".[15] These findings have been called into question in a 2007 paper which found "there is no evidence for substantial aerobic methane emission by terrestrial plants, maximally 0.3% of the previously published values".[16]

Long term atmospheric measurements of methane by NOAA show that the build up of methane has slowed dramatically over the last decade, after nearly tripling since pre-industrial times [17]. It is thought that this reduction is due to reduced industrial emissions and drought in wetland areas.

Very recent data now suggests that methane concentrations may be rising again [18].

[edit] Removal processes

The major removal mechanism of methane from the atmosphere involves radical chemistry ; it reacts with the hydroxyl radical (·OH), initially formed from water vapor broken down by oxygen atoms that come from the cleavage of ozone by ultraviolet radiation:

CH4 + ·OH → ·CH3 + H2O

This reaction in the troposphere gives a methane lifetime of 9.6 years. Two more minor sinks are soil sinks (160 year lifetime) and stratospheric loss by reaction with ·OH, ·Cl and ·O1D in the stratosphere (120 year lifetime), giving a net lifetime of 8.4 years.[11] Oxidation of methane is the main source of water vapor in the upper stratosphere (beginning at pressure levels around 10 kPa).

[edit] Sudden release from methane clathrates

At high pressures, such as are found on the bottom of the ocean, methane forms a solid clathrate with water, known as methane hydrate. An unknown, but possibly very large quantity of methane is trapped in this form in ocean sediments. The sudden release of large volumes of methane from such sediments into the atmosphere has been suggested as a possible cause for rapid global warming events in the Earth's distant past, such as the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum of 55 million years ago.

One source estimates the size of the methane hydrate deposits of the oceans at ten trillion tons (10 exagrams)[citation needed]. Theories suggest that should global warming cause them to heat up sufficiently, all of this methane could again be suddenly released into the atmosphere. Since methane is twenty-three times stronger (for a given weight, averaged over 100 years) than CO2 as a greenhouse gas; this would immensely magnify the greenhouse effect, heating Earth to unprecedented levels (see Clathrate gun hypothesis).

[edit] Release of methane from bogs

Although less dramatic than release from clathrates, but already happening, is an increase in the release of methane from bogs as permafrost melts. Although records of permafrost are limited, recent years (1999 to 2007) have seen record thawing of permafrost in Alaska and Siberia.

Recent measurements in Siberia show that the methane released is five times greater than previously estimated [19].

[edit] Extraterrestrial methane

Methane has been detected or is believed to exist in several locations of the solar system. It is believed to have been created by abiotic processes, with the possible exception of Mars.

  • Moon - traces are present in the thin atmosphere[20]
  • Mars - the atmosphere contains 10 ppb methane
  • Jupiter - the atmosphere contains about 0.3% methane
  • Saturn - the atmosphere contains about 0.4% methane
  • Uranus - the atmosphere contains 2.3% methane
    • Ariel - methane is believed to be a constituent of Ariel's surface ice
    • Miranda
    • Oberon - about 20% of Oberon's surface ice is composed of methane-related carbon/nitrogen compounds
    • Titania - about 20% of Titania's surface ice is composed of methane-related organic compounds
    • Umbriel - methane is a constituent of Umbriel's surface ice
  • Neptune - the atmosphere contains 1.6% methane
    • Triton - Triton has a tenuous nitrogen atmosphere with small amounts of methane near the surface.[23][24]
  • Pluto - spectroscopic analysis of Pluto's surface reveals it to contain traces of methane[25][26]
    • Charon - methane is believed to be present on Charon, but it is not completely confirmed[27]
  • Eris - infrared light from the object revealed the presence of methane ice
  • Comet Halley
  • Comet Hyakutake - terrestrial observations found ethane and methane in the comet[28]
  • Extrasolar planet HD 189733b - This is the first detection of an organic compound on planets outside the solar system. It is unknown how it originated, when the high temperature (700°C) favors the formation of carbon monoxide instead. [29]
  • Interstellar clouds[30]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
  2. ^ Radiative Forces of Climate Change. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. IPCC. Retrieved on 2008-05-26.
  4. ^ Miller, G. Tyler. Sustaining the Earth: An Integrated Approach. U.S.A.: Thomson Advantage Books, 2007. 160.
  5. ^ Livestock's Long Shadow–Environmental Issues and Options. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  6. ^ California Cows Fail Latest Emissions Test
  7. ^ New Zealand Tries to Cap Gaseous Sheep Burps
  8. ^ Research on use of bacteria from the stomach lining of kangaroos (who don't emit methane) to reduce methane in cattle
  9. ^ Plants do emit methane after all - earth - 02 December 2007 - New Scientist Environment
  10. ^ Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions Nature, January 12, 2006
  11. ^ a b c Trace Gases: Current Observations, Trends, and Budgets. Climate Change 2001. United Nations Environment Programme.
  12. ^ a b Technical summary. Climate Change 2001. United Nations Environment Programme.
  13. ^ Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions. Nature (2006-01-12). Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
  14. ^ Plants revealed as methane source. BBC (2006-01-11). Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
  15. ^ Global warming - the blame is not with the plants. eurekalert.org (2006-01-18). Retrieved on 2006-09-06.
  16. ^ Duek, Tom A.; Ries de Visser, Hendrik Poorter, Stefan Persijn, Antonie Gorissen, Willem de Visser, Ad Schapendonk, Jan Verhagen, Jan Snel, Frans J. M. Harren, Anthony K. Y. Ngai, Francel Verstappen, Harro Bouwmeester, Laurentius A. C. J. Voesenek, Adrie van der Werf (2007-03-30). "No evidence for substantial aerobic methane emission by terrestrial plants: a 13C-labelling approach.". New Phytologist 175: 29. Blackwell. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02103.x. 
  18. ^ Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) Indicates Sharp Rise in Carbon Dioxide and Methane in 2007=NOAA news Online. Retrieved on 2008-06-16.
  19. ^ Methane bubbles climate trouble. BBC (2006-09-07). Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
  20. ^ Stern, S.A. (1999). "The Lunar atmosphere: History, status, current problems, and context". Rev. Geophys. 37: 453–491. doi:10.1029/1999RG900005. 
  21. ^ H. B. Niemann, et al. (2005). "The abundances of constituents of Titan's atmosphere from the GCMS instrument on the Huygens probe". Nature 438: 779–784. doi:10.1038/nature04122. 
  22. ^ Waite, J. H.; et al.; (2006); Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer: Enceladus Plume Composition and Structure, Science, Vol. 311, No. 5766, pp. 1419–1422
  23. ^ A L Broadfoot, S K Bertaux, J E Dessler et al. (December 15, 1989). "Ultraviolet Spectrometer Observations of Neptune and Triton". Science 246: 1459–1466. doi:10.1126/science.246.4936.1459. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17756000. 
  24. ^ Ron Miller; William K. Hartmann (May 2005). The Grand Tour: A Traveler's Guide to the Solar System, 3rd, Thailand: Workman Publishing, 172–73. ISBN 0-7611-3547-2. 
  25. ^ Tobias C. Owen, Ted L. Roush et al. (6 August 1993). "Surface Ices and the Atmospheric Composition of Pluto". Science 261 (5122): 745–748. doi:10.1126/science.261.5122.745. PMID 17757212. 
  26. ^ Pluto. SolStation (2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-28.
  27. ^ B. Sicardy et al (2006). "Charon's size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation". Nature 439: 52. doi:10.1038/nature04351. 
  28. ^ Mumma, M.J.; Disanti, M.A., dello Russo, N., Fomenkova, M., Magee-Sauer, K., Kaminski, C.D., and D.X. Xie (1996). "Detection of Abundant Ethane and Methane, Along with Carbon Monoxide and Water, in Comet C/1996 B2 Hyakutake: Evidence for Interstellar Origin". Science 272: 1310. doi:10.1126/science.272.5266.1310. 
  29. ^ Stephen Battersby (2008-02-11). Organic molecules found on alien world for first time. Retrieved on 2008-02-12.
  30. ^ J. H. Lacy, J. S. Carr, N. J. Evans, II, F. Baas, J. M. Achtermann, J. F. Arens (1991). "Discovery of interstellar methane - Observations of gaseous and solid CH4 absorption toward young stars in molecular clouds". Astrophysical Journal 376: 556–560. doi:10.1086/170304. 

[edit] External links

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Look up methane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
v  d  e
Methane ( CH4 ) • Ethane ( C2H6 ) • Propane ( C3H8 ) • Butane ( C4H10 ) • Pentane ( C5H12 ) • Hexane ( C6H14 ) • Heptane ( C7H16 ) •Octane ( C8H18 ) • Nonane ( C9H20 ) • Decane ( C10H22 ) • Undecane ( C11H24 ) • Dodecane ( C12H26 )
List of alkanes